Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne

Alcazar, Miguel A Alejandre | Koch, Manuel - C 01

Netrin-1 as a new target to treat chronic lung disease: Identification of agonists and antagonists by artificial intelligence


Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a neonatal chronic lung disease, is characterised by inflammation, matrix remodeling and lung growth arrest. The lack of therapies emphasizes the need to define new therapeutic strategies to prevent acute injury and promote lung regeneration. Since netrin-1 has anti-inflammatory and stemness-promoting function, we aim to identify novel netrin-1 targeting agonists and antagonists to promote alveolarization by preventing inflammation and matrix remodeling in neonatal chronic lung disease.

Preterm infants, whose lungs are incompletely developed, are at high risk for respiratory failure. Oxygen (O2) and mechanical ventilation (MV) offer life-saving treatments for respiratory distress; such treatment, however, leads to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a neonatal chronic lung disease. Despite the advances in perinatal care, BPD is the most common complication of prematurity. Lungs of infants afflicted with BPD are characterized by impaired formation of alveoli and pulmonary micro-vessels as well as perturbed matrix remodeling, yielding structural changes resembling emphysema or chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD).

These structural and functional sequelae of prematurity persist beyond infancy, suggesting a reduced regenerative capacity of lungs with BPD. Inflammation and perturbed matrix remodeling favoring fibrosis are intimately linked to the pathogenesis of BPD. The high incidence of BPD and the lack of pharmaceutical therapies emphasize the need of unravelling the early molecular origins that cause the initial lung injury to identify novel targets in BPD to inhibit inflammation, to preserve lung matrix and thereby lung growth. 

Molecular mechanisms of experimental and clinical BPD

The pathogenesis of BPD includes inflammation, matrix remodeling and reduced regeneration, but the mechanisms are not yet known. Our research group has established two animal models of neonatal lung growth arrest, hyperoxia- and ventilation-induced lung injury. Neonatal lung growth arrest was related to an infiltration of immune cells in the lung, to increased protease activity and elevated inflammatory cytokines, e.g. IL6.  Moreover, we found that Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4), a zinc-finger transcription factor that plays a major role in regulating cell pluripotency, cell survival and cell differentiation as well as inflammation, is markedly reduced in neonatal lungs with growth arrest.

We studied the role of Klf4 in vivo and in vitro and identified Klf4 as a key regulator of alveolar epithelial cells type II (ATII), the alveolar progenitor cells that promote alveolar regeneration. Our translational studies showed that ATII-specific ablation of Klf4 during alveolarization promotes ATII differentiation and enables lung growth. These findings highlight Klf4 as a novel target to promote lung growth and regeneration.

Blocking inflammation to enable lung growth

The pathogenesis of BPD includes inflammation, but the mechanisms are not yet known. Macrophages are key constituents of lung inflammation, secreting various cytokines, such as Interleukin 6 (IL6), CXCL10 and MMP12, regulator of cell homeostasis, matrix remodeling, immune response and tissue regeneration.Interestingly,Klf4 has been identified as a key regulator of macrophage differentiation, maintaining anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype; in contrast, deletion of Klf4 favors inflammatory M1. Infants evolving BPD, show an elevation of M1 markers, whereas M2 markers are unchanged or even reduced.

Similarly, in models of neonatal lung growth arrest a macrophage influx is linked to increased protease activity and macrophage-related cytokines, e.g. IL6. We next tested if blockade of these cytokines enables lung formation after hyperoxia. Indeed, IL6 and MMP12 null mice were partly protected from hyperoxia-induced lung injury. In particular, loss of IL6 preserved survival and homeostasis of ATII, alveolar formation, and ultimately lung function, suggesting IL6 as a novel therapeutical target to treat BPD (Figure 1).

Figure 1

Our Aims

BPD remains a devastating disease of extreme premature infants. Our future perspective aims to target Klf4 in three major pathomechanisms of BPD: (1) regenerative capacity; (2) matrix remodelling; and (3) inflammation. Effective treatment or prevention of hyperoxia- or ventilator-induced lung injury evolving into BPD likely will derive from elucidating molecular mechanisms causing initial injury, which is the central goal of our research group.

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  • Karlsen A, Gonzalez-Franquesa A, Jakobsen JR, Krogsgaard MR, Koch M, Kjaer M, Schiaffino S, Mackey AL, and Deshmukh AS (2022). The proteomic profile of the human myotendinous junction. iScience25, 103836. doi:10.1016/j.isci.2022.103836.
  • Loustau T, Abou-Faycal C, Erne W, Zur Wiesch PA, Ksouri A, Imhof T, Morgelin M, Li C, Mathieu M, Salome N, Cremel G, Dhaouadi S, Bouhaouala-Zahar B, Koch M, and Orend G (2022). Modulating tenascin-C functions by targeting the MAtrix REgulating MOtif, "MAREMO". Matrix Biol108, 20-38. doi:10.1016/j.matbio.2022.02.007.
  • Vanshylla K, Fan C, Wunsch M, Poopalasingam N, Meijers M, Kreer C, Kleipass F, Ruchnewitz D, Ercanoglu MS, Gruell H, Munn F, Pohl K, Janicki H, Nolden T, Bartl S, Stein SC, Augustin M, Dewald F, Gieselmann L, Schommers P, Schulz TF, Sander LE, Koch M, Luksza M, Lassig M, Bjorkman PJ, and Klein F (2022). Discovery of ultrapotent broadly neutralizing antibodies from SARS-CoV-2 elite neutralizers. Cell Host Microbe30, 69-82 e10. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.010.
  • Obst S, Herz J, Alejandre Alcazar MA, Endesfelder S, Mobius MA, Rudiger M, Felderhoff-Muser U, and Bendix I (2022). Perinatal Hyperoxia and Developmental Consequences on the Lung-Brain Axis. Oxid Med Cell Longev2022, 5784146. doi:10.1155/2022/5784146
  • Trojan T, Alejandre Alcazar MA, Fink G, Thomassen JC, Maessenhausen MV, Rietschel E, Schneider PM, and van Koningsbruggen-Rietschel S (2022). The effect of TGF-beta1 polymorphisms on pulmonary disease progression in patients with cystic fibrosis. BMC Pulm Med22, 183. doi:10.1186/s12890-022-01977-1.
  • Voggel J, Mohr J, Nusken KD, Dotsch J, Nusken E, and Alejandre Alcazar MA (2022). Translational insights into mechanisms and preventive strategies after renal injury in neonates. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med27, 101245. doi:10.1016/j.siny.2021.101245.
  • Berghausen EM, Janssen W, Vantler M, Gnatzy-Feik LL, Krause M, Behringer A, Joseph C, Zierden M, Freyhaus HT, Klinke A, Baldus S, Alcazar MA, Savai R, Pullamsetti SS, Wong DW, Boor P, Zhao JJ, Schermuly RT, and Rosenkranz S (2021). Disrupted PI3K subunit p110alpha signaling protects against pulmonary hypertension and reverses established disease in rodents. J Clin Invest131. doi:10.1172/JCI136939.
  • Hirani D, Alvira CM, Danopoulos S, Milla C, Donato M, Tian L, Mohr J, Dinger K, Vohlen C, Selle J, Koningsbruggen-Rietschel SV, Barbarino V, Pallasch C, Rose-John S, Odenthal M, Pryhuber GS, Mansouri S, Savai R, Seeger W, Khatri P, Al Alam D, Dotsch J, and Alejandre Alcazar MA (2021). Macrophage-derived IL-6 trans-signaling as a novel target in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Eur Respir J. doi:10.1183/13993003.02248-2020.
  • Pütz S, Barthel L S, Frohn M, Metzler D, Barham M, Pryymachuk G, Trunschke O, Lubomirov L T, Hescheler J, Chalovich J M, Neiss W F, Koch M, Schroeter M M, Pfitzer G (2021). Caldesmon ablation in mice causes umbilical herniation and alters contractility of fetal urinary bladder smooth muscle.J Gen Physiol 153(7):e202012776.doi: 10.1085/jgp.202012776. Epub 2021 Jun 11.
  • Thomassen JC, Trojan T, Walz M, Vohlen C, Fink G, Rietschel E, Alejandre Alcazar MA, and van Koningsbruggen-Rietschel S (2021). Reduced neutrophil elastase inhibitor elafin and elevated transforming growth factor-beta1 are linked to inflammatory response in sputum of cystic fibrosis patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ERJ Open Res7. doi:10.1183/23120541.00636-2020.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Voggel J, Lubomirov L, Lechner F, Fink G, Nusken E, Wohlfarth M, Pfitzer G, Shah-Hosseini K, Hellmich M, Alejandre Alcazar MA, Dotsch J, and Nusken KD (2021). Vascular tone regulation in renal interlobar arteries of male rats is dysfunctional after intrauterine growth restriction. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol321, F93-F105. doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00653.2020.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Vohlen C, Mohr J, Fomenko A, Kuiper-Makris C, Grzembke T, Aydogmus R, Wilke R, Hirani D, Dotsch J, and Alejandre Alcazar MA (2021). Dynamic Regulation of GH-IGF1 Signaling in Injury and Recovery in Hyperoxia-Induced Neonatal Lung Injury. Cells10. doi:10.3390/cells10112947.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kuiper-Makris C, Selle J, Nusken E, Dotsch J, and Alejandre Alcazar MA (2021). Perinatal Nutritional and Metabolic Pathways: Early Origins of Chronic Lung Diseases. Front Med (Lausanne)8, 667315. doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.667315.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Voggel J, Mohr J, Nusken KD, Dotsch J, Nusken E, and Alejandre Alcazar MA (2021). Translational insights into mechanisms and preventive strategies after renal injury in neonates. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med, 101245. doi:10.1016/j.siny.2021.101245.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Eberhardt KA, Dewald F, Heger E, Gieselmann L, Vanshylla K, Wirtz M, Kleipass F, Johannis W, Schommers P, Gruell H, Brensing KA, Muller RU, Augustin M, Lehmann C, Koch M, Klein F, and Di Cristanziano V (2021). Evaluation of a New Spike (S)-Protein-Based Commercial Immunoassay for the Detection of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Microorganisms9. doi:10.3390/microorganisms9040733.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Eisfeld HS, Simonis A, Winter S, Chhen J, Stroh LJ, Krey T, Koch M, Theobald SJ, and Rybniker J (2021). Viral Glycoproteins Induce NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Pyroptosis in Macrophages. Viruses13. doi:10.3390/v13102076.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Furlan AG, Spanou CES, Godwin ARF, Wohl AP, Zimmermann LA, Imhof T, Koch M, Baldock C, and Sengle G (2021). A new MMP-mediated prodomain cleavage mechanism to activate bone morphogenetic proteins from the extracellular matrix. FASEB J35, e21353. doi:10.1096/fj.202001264R.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Halwe S, Kupke A, Vanshylla K, Liberta F, Gruell H, Zehner M, Rohde C, Krahling V, Gellhorn Serra M, Kreer C, Kluver M, Sauerhering L, Schmidt J, Cai Z, Han F, Young D, Yang G, Widera M, Koch M, Werner A, Kamper L, Becker N, Marlow MS, Eickmann M, Ciesek S, Schiele F, Klein F, and Becker S (2021). Intranasal Administration of a Monoclonal Neutralizing Antibody Protects Mice against SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Viruses13. doi:10.3390/v13081498.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Imhof T, Balic A, Heilig J, Chiquet-Ehrismann R, Chiquet M, Niehoff A, Brachvogel B, Thesleff I, and Koch M (2021). Pivotal Role of Tenascin-W (-N) in Postnatal Incisor Growth and Periodontal Ligament Remodeling. Front Immunol11, 608223. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2020.608223.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Izu Y, Adams SM, Connizzo BK, Beason DP, Soslowsky LJ, Koch M, and Birk DE (2021). Collagen XII mediated cellular and extracellular mechanisms regulate establishment of tendon structure and function. Matrix Biol95, 52-67. doi:10.1016/j.matbio.2020.10.004.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Jakobsen JR, Schjerling P, Svensson RB, Buhl R, Carstensen H, Koch M, Krogsgaard MR, Kjaer M, and Mackey AL (2021). RNA sequencing and immunofluorescence of the myotendinous junction of mature horses and humans. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol321, C453-C470. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00218.2021.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Koester J, Miroshnikova YA, Ghatak S, Chacon-Martinez CA, Morgner J, Li X, Atanassov I, Altmuller J, Birk DE, Koch M, Bloch W, Bartusel M, Niessen CM, Rada-Iglesias A, and Wickstrom SA (2021). Niche stiffening compromises hair follicle stem cell potential during ageing by reducing bivalent promoter accessibility. Nat Cell Biol23, 771-781. doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00705-x.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Meinberger D, Koch M, Roth A, Hermes G, Stemler J, Cornely OA, Streichert T, and Klatt AR (2021). Analysis of IgM, IgA, and IgG isotype antibodies Directed against SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and ORF8 in the course of COVID-19. Sci Rep11, 8920. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-88356-8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Moya-Torres A, Gupta M, Heide F, Krahn N, Legare S, Nikodemus D, Imhof T, Meier M, Koch M, and Stetefeld J (2021). Homogenous overexpression of the extracellular matrix protein Netrin-1 in a hollow fiber bioreactor. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol105, 6047-6057. doi:10.1007/s00253-021-11438-0.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Reuten R, Zendehroud S, Nicolau M, Fleischhauer L, Laitala A, Kiderlen S, Nikodemus D, Wullkopf L, Nielsen SR, McNeilly S, Prein C, Rafaeva M, Schoof EM, Furtwangler B, Porse BT, Kim H, Won KJ, Sudhop S, Zornhagen KW, Suhr F, Maniati E, Pearce OMT, Koch M, Oddershede LB, Van Agtmael T, Madsen CD, Mayorca-Guiliani AE, Bloch W, Netz RR, Clausen-Schaumann H, and Erler JT (2021). Basement membrane stiffness determines metastases formation. Nat Mater20, 892-903. doi:10.1038/s41563-020-00894-0.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Theobald SJ, Simonis A, Georgomanolis T, Kreer C, Zehner M, Eisfeld HS, Albert MC, Chhen J, Motameny S, Erger F, Fischer J, Malin JJ, Grab J, Winter S, Pouikli A, David F, Boll B, Koehler P, Vanshylla K, Gruell H, Suarez I, Hallek M, Fatkenheuer G, Jung N, Cornely OA, Lehmann C, Tessarz P, Altmuller J, Nurnberg P, Kashkar H, Klein F, Koch M, and Rybniker J (2021). Long-lived macrophage reprogramming drives spike protein-mediated inflammasome activation in COVID-19. EMBO Mol Med13, e14150. doi:10.15252/emmm.202114150.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Vanshylla K, Fan C, Wunsch M, Poopalasingam N, Meijers M, Kreer C, Kleipass F, Ruchnewitz D, Ercanoglu MS, Gruell H, Munn F, Pohl K, Janicki H, Nolden T, Bartl S, Stein SC, Augustin M, Dewald F, Gieselmann L, Schommers P, Schulz TF, Sander LE, Koch M, Luksza M, Lassig M, Bjorkman PJ, and Klein F (2021). Discovery of ultrapotent broadly neutralizing antibodies from SARS-CoV-2 elite neutralizers. Cell Host Microbe. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2021.12.010.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Dinger K, Koningsbruggen-Rietschel SV, Dotsch J, and Alejandre Alcazar MA (2020). Identification of Critical Windows of Metabolic Programming of Metabolism and Lung Function in Male Offspring of Obese Dams. Clinical and translational science 10.1111/cts.12811.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Kuiper-Makris C, Zanetti D, Vohlen C, Fahle L, Muller M, Odenthal M, Felderhoff-Muser U, Dotsch J, and Alejandre Alcazar MA (2020). Mendelian randomization and experimental IUGR reveal the adverse effect of low birth weight on lung structure and function. Sci Rep 10, 22395.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Litzenburger T, Huber EK, Dinger K, Wilke R, Vohlen C, Selle J, Kadah M, Persigehl T, Heneweer C, Dotsch J, and Alcazar MAA (2020). Maternal high-fat diet induces long-term obesity with sex-dependent metabolic programming of adipocyte differentiation, hypertrophy and dysfunction in he offspring. Clin Sci 134, 921-39.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Polanyi L, Niessen CM, Vohlen C, Stinn J, Kretschmer T, Jentgen V, Hirani D, Koningsbruggen-Rietschel SV, Dotsch J, and Alejandre Alcazar MA (2020). Intrauterine growth restriction induces skin inflammation, increases TSLP and impairs epidermal barrier function. J Mol Med (Berl) 98, 279-89.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Schönborn K, Willenborg S,  Schulz J N, Imhof T, Eming S A, Quondamatteo F, Brinckmann J,  Niehoff A, Paulsson M, Koch M, Eckes B, Krieg T. Role of collagen XII in skin homeostasis and repair. Matrix Biol 2020 Vol. 94 Pages 57-76, Accession Number: 32890632 DOI: 10.1016/j.matbio.2020.08.002.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Spenle C, Loustau T, Murdamoothoo C, Erne W, Beghelli-de la Forest Divonne S, Veber R, Petti L, Bourdely P, Mörgelin M, Brauchle E-M, Cremel G, Randrianarisoa V, Camara A, Rekima S, Schaub S, Nouhen K, Imhof T, Hansen U, Paul N, Carapito R, Pythoud N, Hirschler A, Carapito C, Dumortier H, Mueller C G, Koch M, Schenke-Layland K, Kon S, Sudaka A, Anjuère F, Van Obberghen-Schilling E, Orend G. Tenascin-C Orchestrates an Immune-Suppressive Tumor Microenvironment in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Cancer Immunol Res 2020 Vol. 8 Issue 9 Pages 1122-1138.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Korner RW, Majjouti M, Alcazar MAA, and Mahabir E (2020). Of Mice and Men: The Coronavirus MHV and Mouse Models as a Translational Approach to Understand SARS-CoV-2. Viruses 12.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Imhof T, Korkmaz Y, Koch M, Sengle G, and Schiavinato A (2020). EMILIN proteins are novel extracellular constituents of the dentin-pulp complex. Sci Rep10, 15320. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-72123-2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Imhof T, Rosenblatt K, Pryymachuk G, Weiland D, Noetzel N, Deschner J, Baris OR, Kimoloi S, Koch M, Wiesner RJ, and Korkmaz Y (2020). Epithelial loss of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation leads to disturbed enamel and impaired dentin matrix formation in postnatal developed mouse incisor. Sci Rep10, 22037. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-77954-7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kohler A, Morgelin M, Gebauer JM, Ocal S, Imhof T, Koch M, Nagata K, Paulsson M, Zaucke F, Baumann U, and Sengle G (2020). New specific HSP47 functions in collagen subfamily chaperoning. FASEB J. doi:10.1096/fj.202000570R.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kreer C, Zehner M, Weber T, Ercanoglu MS, Gieselmann L, Rohde C, Halwe S, Korenkov M, Schommers P, Vanshylla K, Di Cristanziano V, Janicki H, Brinker R, Ashurov A, Krahling V, Kupke A, Cohen-Dvashi H, Koch M, Eckert JM, Lederer S, Pfeifer N, Wolf T, Vehreschild MJGT, Wendtner C, Diskin R, Gruell H, Becker S, and Klein F (2020). Longitudinal Isolation of Potent Near-Germline SARS-CoV-2-Neutralizing Antibodies from COVID-19 Patients. Cell182, 843-+. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.06.044.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Matin M, Morgelin M, Stetefeld J, Schermer B, Brinkkoetter PT, Benzing T, Koch M, and Hagmann H (2020). Affinity-Enhanced Multimeric VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) and PlGF (Placental Growth Factor) Variants for Specific Adsorption of sFlt-1 to Restore Angiogenic Balance in Preeclampsia. Hypertension76, 1176-1184. doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.14974.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Salabarria AC, Koch M, Schonberg A, Zinser E, Hos D, Hamdorf M, Imhof T, Braun G, Cursiefen C, and Bock F (2020). Topical VEGF-C/D Inhibition Prevents Lymphatic Vessel Ingrowth into Cornea but Does Not Improve Corneal Graft Survival. J Clin Med9. doi:10.3390/jcm9051270.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Schermer B, Fabretti F, Damagnez M, Di Cristanziano V, Heger E, Arjune S, Tanner NA, Imhof T, Koch M, Ladha A, Joung J, Gootenberg JS, Abudayyeh OO, Burst V, Zhang F, Klein F, Benzing T, and Muller RU (2020). Rapid SARS-CoV-2 testing in primary material based on a novel multiplex RT-LAMP assay. PLoS One15, e0238612. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0238612.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Prof. Dr. Dr. Miguel A Alejandre Alcazar CMMC Cologne
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Prof. Dr. Dr. Miguel A Alejandre Alcazar

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              CMMC - PI - C 01
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              CMMC - former PI - CAP 10

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Prof. Dr. Manuel Koch CMMC Cologne
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Prof. Dr. Manuel Koch

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Institute for Dental Research and Musculoskeletal Biology

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Institute for Dental Research and Musculoskeletal Biology

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              50931 Cologne

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Curriculum Vitae (CV)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Publications on PubMed

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Publications - Manuel Koch

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Link to PubMed

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Group Members

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Serife Akgül
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Janina Betz
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Thomas Imhof
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Dharmesh Hirani
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Jasmine Mohr
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fabian Metzen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Jaco Selle